国际传播的文化研究观点
26 十一月

While much of the debate on international communication post-1945 and during the Cold War emphasized a structural analysis of its role in political and economic power relationships, there has been a discernible shift in research emphasis in the 1990s in parallel with the ‘depoliciticization’ of politics towards the cultural dimensions of communication and media. The cultural analysis of communication also has a well established theoretical tradition to draw upon, from Gramsci’s theory of hegemony to the works of the critical theorists of the Frankfurt School.
一组适应革氏史的霸权观念的学者位于英国伯明翰大学的当代文化研究中心。在加勒比海出生的学者斯图尔特·霍尔(Stuart Hall)的带领下,“伯明翰学校”(The Birmingham School)在1970年代所知,在探索媒体的文本分析,尤其是电视和民族志研究方面确实开创了著作。霍尔(Hall)的“编码编码媒体话语”的模型特别有影响力,理论上介绍了媒体文本如何由生产者赋予“首选读物”,以及如何以不同的方式解释它们 - 从接受主导含义。与编码的信息进行谈判,或采取对立观点(Hall,1980)。
该模型被对大众媒体意识形态作用的研究感兴趣的学者广泛采用。但是,伯明翰学校的研究重点主要是英国人,而且通常,其对“全球”的看法是基于移民人口的民族志研究 - 他们的电视观看习惯,音乐消费和其他休闲活动。The undue emphasis on ethnic and racial identity and ‘multiculturalism’, tended to limit their research perspectives, exposing them to the danger, for example, of confusing ‘British Asian cultural identity’ with the diverse cultures and subcultures of the South Asian region, with its multiplicity of languages, ancient religions and ethnicities.
埃及理论家萨米尔·阿明(Samir Amin)定义的欧洲中心主义的主要西方观点受到欧洲中心主义的深刻影响,构成了“现代资本主义世界的文化和意识形态的一方面”(Amin,1988:VII)。来自发展中国家的许多其他学者都认为,全球南方的当代代表受到历史上在西方思维中建造的方式的影响,例如通过旅行写作(Kabbani,1986),文学(Said,1978; 1993; 1993; 1993; 1993; 1993;)和电影(Shohat and Stam,1994),促成了西方想象中非欧洲人民从属的连续性。这位总部位于美国的巴勒斯坦学者爱德华(Edward)说,探索了占主导地位的文化如何参与19世纪帝国主义的扩张和巩固。掌握文化的观点,写道:
“西方文化形式可以从他们受到保护的自主围栏中取出,而是将其置于帝国主义创造的动态全球环境中,本身被修改为北方和南部,大都市和外围,白人和本地人之间的持续竞赛。透明(1993:59)
Though the cultural studies approach professes to give voice to such issues – race, ethnicity, gender and sexuality remain its key concerns – it has generally rendered less importance to class-based analysis, despite the fact that championing the ‘popular’ has been a major achievement of this tradition. The cultural studies approach to communication has become increasingly important, especially in the USA and Australia and with its new-found interest in ‘global popular’, the trend is towards the internationalization of cultural studies.